India is a net importer of energy, more than 25% of primary energy needs being met through imports mainly in the form of natural gas and crude oil.
Energy production pattern:
Coal and oil account for 54% and 34% respectively, with natural gas, hydro, solar and nuclear contributing to the balance. Nearly 62% of power generation is from coal fired thermal power plants and 70% of the coal produced every year in India has been used for thermal power generation.
Distribution of primary commercial energy resources:
The distribution is non-uniform. The Northern and North-eastern regions account for 70% of the total hydro potential, whereas the Eastern region accounts for about 70% of the total coal reserves in India. The Southern region has most of the lignite deposits in the country
Energy consumption pattern:
The industrial sector consumes about 52% of commercial energy production. The energy consumption per unit of GDP (energy intensity) is one of the highest in comparison to other developed and developing countries. Thus, there is a huge scope for energy conservation in India.
The long-term availability of energy from sources that are affordable, accessible and environmentally friendly will govern the future economic growth in India.