Essay on the Composition of the Parliament of India

In the American Constitution the President is not a part of the Legislature as there is Presidential type of Government.

But the general pattern of our Parliament in India is the same as that of the British Parliament. The Parliamentary system of Government was introduced in India on a limited scale during the days of British Raj in India.

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The Government of India Acts of 1909, 1919, and 1935 set up Legislative bodies both at the Centre and the Provinces in India and established the limited parliamentary system in this country. Indian leaders who had been members of the Legislatures during the British rule had the experience of Parliamentary Government.

It was a powerful factor which convinced makers of the Constitution of India to adopt Parliamentary system of Government for the country.

Thus, it may be said that the introduction of Parliamentary system in the new Constitution is a legacy of the British rule. Another reason in favour of the introduction of Parliamentary form of Government in India was its representative character.

A Parliamentary system of Government is a representative form of Government. Dr. Ambedkar pointed out in the Constituent Assembly that in the Parliamentary system “there is daily and periodic assessment of the responsibilities of the Government”.

Hence the makers of the Constitution introduced the Parliamentary system of Government both at the Centre as well as in the States.

Article 79 of the Constitution, as pointed out earlier, made the President an integral part of the Parliament. The President is to summon, prorogue both the Houses of the Parliament and dissolve the House of the People. He may summon the joint sitting of both the Houses of the Parliament.

It is customary for him to address both Houses when they meet in their first session of the year. He nominates 12 members to the Rajya Sabha. He also nominates two members from Anglo-Indian community to the Lok Sabha, if they are not adequately represented.

The President has the power to give assent to the bills passed by the Parliament. Unless a bill receives the presidential assent, it cannot be law. The President gives prior sanction for the introduction of money bills in the Parliament.

The President has also power to promulgate ordinances during the recess of the Parliament. These legislative powers of the Indian President make him an integral part of the Parliament.

In Contrast to the President of the United States who is not a part of the American Legislature and as such who does not exercise a substantial amount of legislative powers, the President of India is a necessary adjunct of the Union Legislature.

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